This is my fifth post in a series on baptism. Primarily, my concern is to determine the various meanings of the Greek verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ), and how those meanings may be used in the New Testament. So far, by examining the usage of the verb in the LXX, in Philo, and in Josephus, we’ve seen that Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) is very similar to the English verbs “immerse” and “plunge”. They can be used to mean “to submerge under water”, but they can also have other meanings. Thus, context becomes very important in understanding the meaning of the verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ). In this post, I want to examine several passages in the New Testament that definitely indicate a medium besides water in the context.
Just as there are some uses of the verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) which clearly indicate “water baptism” or “washing” in the context, there are other uses which clearly do not indicate water in the context. In other words, in these passages Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) does not mean “to immerse in water”, but takes on other meanings which have nothing to do with water, much like the English verbs “immerse” and “plunge”.
For example, while considering “water baptisms” in the previous post, we looked at Matthew 3 and parallel passages. These passages also include a use of the verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) which does not include water in its meaning:
I baptize you with water for repentance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. (Matthew 3:11; cf. Mark 1:8, Luke 3:16, John 1:33, Acts 1:5, Acts 11:16)
You can see my post “Baptized with the Holy Spirit and with fire” for further explanation of this passage. Clearly, there is a contrast between John’s baptism “with water” and Jesus’ baptism “with the Holy Spirit and with fire”. So, just as John “immersed” people in water, Jesus will “immerse” people in the Holy Spirit and in fire.
There are two other passage where the Greek verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) is used but the context clearly does not indicate that “immersion in water” is the meaning:
Jesus said to them, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized?” And they said to him, “We are able.” And Jesus said to them, “The cup that I drink you will drink, and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized, but to sit at my right hand or at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared.” (Mark 10:38-40 ESV)
I (Jesus) have a baptism to be baptized with, and how great is my distress until it is accomplished! (Luke 12:50 ESV)
In these two passages, although the verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) is used, the context does not indicate water. Instead, the two passages indicate that people will be “immersed” in suffering, not water.
Now that I have examined passages in the New Testament where the Greek verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) is used with clear indications of the meaning (either “water” or not) from the context, in the next post I will examine passages where the context leaves the meaning of the verb Î²Î±Ï€Ï„á½·Î¶Ï‰ (baptizÅ) unclear or ambiguous.